The Worker’s Day.
The International Worker’s Day (or The Labour Day in the US and Canada that is observed on the first Monday of September) are the other names given to this day.
May 1 was designated as the International Worker’s Day by socialist and trade union groups around the world in 1889.
In some countries (especially in some European countries) it is marked as the festival on the first day of the summer.
The Penny Black was the world’s first adhesive postage stamp used for official mail in a public postal system of the United Kingdom (Great Britain). It was printed by M/s Perkins Bacon & Co, UK and released on this day in 1840 in England.
It depicts Queen Victoria and cost one penny. Henry Corbould, an English artist provided the basic sketch and Charles D Heath, famous British engraver, and his son Fredrick engraved the portrait of Queen Victoria. It was officially issued for sale on May 6, 1840.
68,808,000 stamps (having an initial size of ¾ inch square) were released totally on 286,700 imperforate print sheets known as Imprimatur sheets.
Satyajit Ray, famous Indian moviemaker and the Academy (the Oscars) Honorary Award winner, was born on this day in 1921 in Calcutta, Bengal Presidency, British India (today’s Kolkata, India).
He is a film director, writer, illustrator, and Lyricist. He directed many films and documentaries. His famous works are The Apu Trilogy, Charulata, The Music Room, and The Big City and so on.
He was the first Indian to receive the Oscar’s (Academy’s) Honorary Award in 1992. He received many prestigious awards such as Bharat Ratna (the highest civilian award of India), in 1992 (just before his death), the Akira Kurosawa Award for Lifetime Achievement in Direction (received posthumously). The Sight & Sound Critics, a monthly British film magazine published by BFI (the British Film Institute) listed him at number 7 of ‘Top 10 Directors’ of all time in 1992.
Osama bin Laden was killed on this day in 2011 by the US forces in Bilal Town, Abbottabad, Pakistan.
He was the founder of Al-Qaeda, the militant Islamist organization. He masterminded the September 11, 2001 attacks and many terrorist attacks. He was behind many suicide terrorist attacks against the United States of America.
He was wealthy Saudi Arabian and owned Saudi Bin Laden Group, a construction company founded by him.
Operation Neptune Spear was the official code name of the mission. A total of 79 commandos and a dog were involved in the mission according to The New York Times.
The First Woman Prime Minister of Israel
Golda Meir, the first woman prime minister of Israel, was born on this day in 1898 in Kiev, Ukraine (then in Russian Empire).
She was a politician, teacher, and member of Kibbutz (collective farming in Israel). She was the fourth premier and in office from 1969 – 1974.
She received many awards.
- The Israel Prize in 1975 for her contribution to Israel.
- The James Madison Award in 1974 by Princeton University for her distinguished public service.
- She was inducted into the Colorado Women’s Hall of Fame in 1985.
She died at the age of 80 on December 8, 1978 in Jerusalem, Israel.
The First Grammy Awards
NARAS (National Academy of Recording Art and Sciences), an American academy by musical professionals, first presented the Grammy Awards on this day in 1959 in Los Angeles. It is called Grammy because the award bears a gold-plated gramophone. 28 Grammy Awards were presented in the inaugural function.
Domenico Modugno received the first Grammy for both Record of the Year and Song of the Year for the song “Nel Blu Dipinto Di Blu (Volare)”.
The function was hosted by Mort Sahl (Morton Lyon Sahl), a Canadian-born American actor and social satirist, at Beverly Hilton Hotel, Beverly Hills, California. The program was covered by ABC Television Channel.
The First Woman Patent Holder
Mary Dixon Kies (Mary Kies), the first woman patent holder, received a U.S. patent for inventing a process of weaving straw with silk or thread on this day in 1809 after the introduction of the U.S. Patent Act of 1790.
Till 1790, men only had patents for their works. Having granted a patent for her innovative stylish work, she became the first woman to author a patent.
Her technique of weaving hats was cost-effective and valuable those days.
She was born in Killingly, Connecticut, and made women’s hats, bonnets (A hat tied under the chin), and headwear with this technique.
The first official U.S. Patent Office was established in 1802 within the limits of Washington, D.C.
The Great Psychoanalyst
Sigmund Freud, founder of psychoanalysis, was born on this day in 1856 in Freiberg in Mahren, Moravia, Austrian Empire. It is now called Pribor comes under Czech Republic).
He began his medical career at Vienna General Hospital in 1882. He went to Paris on fellowship to study and research on hypnosis with Jean Martin Charcot, a renowned French neurologist, in 1885.
He started private practice in Vienna in 1886. He continued his career mostly in the fields of neurology, psychotherapy, and psychoanalysis. He received Goethe Prize of the City of Frankfurt, Germany, (given to creative personalities in arts and science) in 1930.
His most famous psychoanalytical theories are the theories of:-
- Id, ego, and super ego.
- Oedipus complex,
- Defence mechanism.
He died at the age of 83 on 23 September, 1939 in Hampstead, London, England.
Sony Corporation founded by
Ibuka Masaru and Morita Akio founded Sony Corporation, a conglomerate of consumer products in Nihonbashi, Tokyo, Japan on this day in 1946. Its former name was Tokyo Tsushin Kogyo Ltd until 1957.
It authors multiple products such as Consumer electronics, music, films, Robots, Television channels, etc.
It offers many services in the fields of advertising, banking, credit finance, insurance, financial services, network services, etc. It is now headquartered in Konan, Minato, Tokyo, Japan.
Famous Children Story Writer and Illustrator
Maurice Sendak, famous American writer for children books, died on this day in 2012 at the age of 83 in Danbury, Connecticut, U.S.
He wrote many notable picture books for children such as Kenny’s Window, Where the Wild Things Are, Seven Little Monsters, etc.
He was influenced by Walt Disney’s film Fantasia at the age of 12 and decided to write illustrated stories for children.
His name first got international acclaim for his book ‘Where the Wild Things Are,’ first published in 1963.
He received many awards such as Hans Christian Andersen Award in 1970, Astrid Lindgren Memorial Award in 2003, Laura Ingalls Wilder Medal in 1983, and National Medal of Arts in 1996, and so on.
His brother jack Sendak was also a children’s book writer. They worked together on two books viz. the Happy Rain (1956) and Circus Girl (1957).
Vertigo… A Great Sensation…
One of the world’s best psychological thriller Vertigo directed by Alfred Hitchcock, premiered on this day in 1958 at the Stage Door Theatre at Mason and Geary (today known as the August Hall nightclub).
The lead roles were played by James Stewart and Kim Novak.
This film was based on the 1954 novel D’entre les morts (From among the Dead) written by Boileau-Narcejoc.
Vertigo grabbed second position in the poll conducted by the British film magazine ‘Sight & Sound’ in 2002.
The United States Library of Congress recognized Vertigo as a “culturally, historically and aesthetically significant film” in 1989 and preserved it in the National Film Registry.
Nelson Mandela became president ending apartheid rule.
Nelson Mandela became president of South Africa at the age of 75 on this day in 1994. He won the general election held on 27 April with about 63% vote-share. Having ended the apartheid rule in South Africa, he was the first non-white president establishing the full democratic system.
He was born on 18 July 1918 in Mvezo, a small village on the banks of the river Mbashe in South Africa. He spent most of his life in prison fighting against the apartheid rule in South Africa.
He studied law at the University of the Witwatersrand, a multi-campus public research university in Johannesburg.
He married Evelyn Mase, (a trainee nurse, married in 1944 and divorced in 1958), Winnie Mandela, (anti-apartheid activist and politician, married in 1958 and divorced in 1996), Dame Graca Machel, (a Mozambican politician and humanitarian, married in 1998).
He received many prestigious awards. A few of them are:
Sakharov Prize (for Freedom of Thought), presented by European Parliament in 1988.
President Medal of Freedom (award given by the president of the United States) in 1990.
Lenin Peace Prize (a Soviet Union award) in 1990.
Bharat Ratna (the highest civilian award of India) in 1990.
Nishan-e-Pakistan (the highest civilian award of Pakistan) in 1992.
Nobel Peace Prize in 1993.
He died at the age of 95 on 5 December, 2013 in Johannesburg, South Africa.
The beginning of Glacier Park
Glacier National Park, America’s 10th national park, was established on May 10, 1910 in Montana’s Rocky Mountains. It is located on the Canada-United States border.
The 27th president of the United States William Howard Taft signed the bill for establishing this park.
Having an area of 4,000 sq.km (1 million acres), this park includes two mountain ranges with sub-ranges of Rocky Mountains, more than 700 lakes (out of which only 130 lakes have been named so far) and is an inhabitant of many different plant and animal species.
This park is annually visited by about 2-3 million visitors. The temperature here remains around 10 degrees Celsius (50 degrees Fahrenheit) year-round. There are about 200 waterfalls scattered around.
It is archeologically said that over 1.6 billion 800 million years ago, the rocks here were deposited in shallow seas.
The temperatures here change rapidly. The usual day time temperatures lie at 16 to 21 degrees C (60-70 degrees F) and night temperatures at 4 degrees C (40 degrees F).
On the night of January 23-24, 1916, there was a record temperature drop of 100 degrees F (56 degrees C) in only 24 hours.
The damage by Sichuan earthquake
The Great Sichuan earthquake (Wenchuan earthquake) in china, causing the largest number of hazards ever recorded, happened on 12th May, 2008 with several meters of surface displacements. The strong after-shocks continued several months later.
It is recorded as the 18th deadliest earthquake of all time and the 2nd one in china taking the lives of over 69,000 after the 1976 Tangshan earthquake (in which 242,000 people lost their lives. The total damage occurred was about $150 billion. The magnitude of this earthquake measured at 7.9-8 on Richter scale. The other places effected by the tremors of this earth are Hong Kong, Macau, Vietnam, Thailand, Taiwan, Mongolia, Bangladesh, Nepal, India, Pakistan, Russia, and Myanmar.
Smiling Star… No More…
Doris Day, Hollywood actress, singer, and animal welfare activist, died at the age of 97 on May 13, 2019 in California, U.S.
She had an active film career from 1939-2012. She was born on April 3, 1922 in Cincinnati, Ohio, US.
Her full name was Doris Mary Anne Kappelhoff.
She spent her final years serving and rescuing animals on her seven-acre estate in Carmel Valley.
Beginning her career as a singer in 1939 (Big Band singer) she became familiar with her songs “Sentimental Journey” and “My Dreams Are Getting Better All the Time” in 1945. From 1947 to 1967 she sang more than 650 songs.
And she was a popular star in many successful films in the Golder Age of Hollywood (1910-60) of many genres including musicals, dramas, comedies, and romantic thrillers such as:
- Starlift (1951),
- Calamity Jane (1953),
- Love Me or Leave Me (1955),
- The Man Who Knew Too Much (1956) (a film by Hitchcock),
- Pillow Talk (1959) (co-starred with Rock Hudson (popular movie star),
- Lover Come Back (1961),
- Move Over, Darling (1963),
- The Thrill of it All (1963),
- Send Me No Flowers (1964), and so on.
She received many prestigious awards such as:
- Golden Glove Cecil B. DeMille Award in 1989,
- Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2004,
- Grammy’s Lifetime Achievement Award in in 2008,
- Legend Award from the Society of Singers in 2008),
- Los Angeles Film Critics Association’s Career Achievement Award in 2011,
The First Ever Vaccination in the World
The first vaccination against smallpox (and the world’s first ever vaccine too) was tested on an eight-year boy on May 14, 1776 by Edward Jenner, British doctor.
Doctor E Jenner made the vaccination by discovering the link between cowpox pus and smallpox. Cowpox (disease caused by cowpox virus, (CPXV). Cowpox is a similar disease like smallpox, but less virulent. Milkmaids used to suffer from this disease those days. Doctor Jenner observed that milkmaids who suffer from cowpox had developed the immunity to smallpox. So he imagined that the pus in the blisters of cowpox could help finding a vaccine to smallpox.
After developing the vaccine Jenner convinced the parents of James Phipps (an eight-year boy of milking farmers) and vaccinated his both arms with his medicine.
His work saved many lives and hence then he is said to be “the father of immunology.”
Edward Jenner was born on 17 May, 1749 in Berkeley, Gloucestershire, England. He was a physician to King George IV. He became the mayor of Berkeley and justice of the peace. He was also a member of the Royal Society in the field of zoology. Dr Jenner died on 26 January, 1823 at the age of 73 in his hometown (Berkeley).
The first regular airmail in the US established
The first regularly-scheduled airmail in the US between Washington DC to New York via Philadelphia was flown on May 15, 1918.
This route was advocated and designed by Augustus Post, an automotive and aviation pioneer. The first US airmail was franked with the 24 Cent Jenny stamp.
Before this, on September 23, 1911 the first official airmail in America was scheduled by the United States Post Office Department.
Actually, the world’s first airmail service opened on September 9, 1911 between Hendon, the London suburb, and Windsor, Berkshire (the Postmaster General’s office). Earlier to this some official airmail trial flight was conducted in India between Allahabad and Naini, a distance of 13 km (about 8 miles) on February 18, 1911.
The First Woman to summit the Mount Everest
Junko Tabei, mountaineer from Japan, became the first woman to climb Mount Everest, the earth’s highest mountain above sea level, along with And Tsering from Nepal (the Sherpa guide) on May 16, 1975.
She was born on September 22, 1939 in Miharu, Japan. She was a mountaineer, author, and teacher. She is also the first woman to climb the Seven Summits by 1992 including Mount Everest.
The Seven Summits she ascended are:
- Mount Everest in 1975. Height: 8,849 m above sea level. Location: the Himalayas (The China-Nepal border), Asia.
- Kilimanjaro in 1980. Height: 5,895 m above sea level. A dormant volcano in Tanzania, Africa.
- Mount Aconcagua of the Andes mountain range in 1987. Height: 6,961 m above sea level. Location: Mendoza Province, Argentina, South America.
- Denali (the highest mountain peak in North America) in 1988. Height: 6,190 m above sea level. Location: Alaska, U.S.A.
- Mount Elbrus (a dormant volcano and the highest peak in Russia and Europe) in 1989. Height: 5,642 m above sea level. Location: Kabardino-Balkaria, Southern Russia.
- Mount Vinson (a large mountain massif in Antarctica) in 1991. Height: 4,892 m above sea level. Location: 1200 km (750 miles) from the South Pole.
- Puncak Jaya (the highest mountain peak of an island on Earth) in 1992. Height: 4,884 m above sea level. Location: Papua Province, Indonesia.
She died of stomach cancer on October 20, 2016 at the age of 77 in Kawagoe, Japan.
The birth of the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE).
The New York Stock Exchange (The Big Board), the world’s largest stock exchange was founded on May 17, 1792 by 24 brokers signing the Buttonwood Agreement (the name stands for initial NYSE).
The Buttonwood Agreement is an important financial document in the history of US. It organized the trading of securities since its origin and the earlier trading was mostly the war bonds (government securities).
Now it is being operated under Intercontinental Exchange (ICE) formed in 2000. The main building was designed by George B Post, architect, and built in 1903 at 18 Broad Street.
It works for almost 253 days per year (excluding public holidays and week offs) from Monday to Friday from 9:30 AM to 4:00 PM for trading. The electronic hybrid market (a fully automated electronic exchange has been in operation since January 24, 2007.
The First Animated Movie to receive the Oscar Award
Shrek was the first animated movie that received the Oscar Award (Academy Award) on May 18, 2001 as the best animated movie. The Award was received by Warner Aron, an American film producer and voice actor.
It is a comedy film based on the book titled “Shrek” written by William Steig, An American book writer and cartoonist. Shrek is the lead character in the comedy fairy tale. He is an Ogre (green monster-like man). The sequels followed afterwards with the grand success of the first film.
It also won Award for Best Screenplay from the British Academy of Film and Television Arts (BAFTA). This film was made by capturing the realistic human movement to the characters with the help of ExpertVision Hires Falcon 10. It was released across 3,587 theatres. This was the first time that DreamWorks (producers of animated films in America) released a film with 11 digital copies. Several video games were also made on this theme.
Start of a Great Circus Company – Ringling Bros Circus Company
Ringling brothers (Seven in number) started a mini circus on May 19, 1884 in Baraboo, Wisconsin, US.
Charles, Otto, Alfred, Albert, John were active founding members of the Ringling Circus, and two more August and Henry were occasionally supported the troupe. Their father was August Rungeling, a German-born harness maker.
Their initial journey began as a song-and-dance troupe in 1882. Ringling Brothers made longer tours from 1890 by using wagons on railway cars. They became the eminent circus company after buying the Barnum & Bailey Circus, their main competitor, in 1907.
The circus company closed in 2017 after a long run due to decline of sales by the effect of animal rights protests. It is expected the shows are going to begin without animals under the management of Feld Entertainment, popular show producers, from 2023 and for which the auditions are going on.
Goddess of Pop born:
Cher (Cherilyn Sarkisian), popular American singer and actress, was born on May 20, 1946 in El Centro, California, US. She has been active since 1963 to the present day.
Media calls her the “Goddess of Pop”. She came into popularity with the song “I Got You Babe” in 1965, number one-listed song on US and UK those days.
She won the Oscar (Academy) Award for Best Actress for her performance in Moonstruck (1987 film). She played key roles in many hit films such as Silkwood (1983), Mask (1985), and the Witches of Eastwick (1987).
She released many far-famed music albums such as Cher (1987), Heart of Stone (1989), Love Hurts (1991), and directed a Television film – “If These Walls Could Talk” in 1996 for the first time. The most successful pop album of her the ‘Dance-Pop’.
She started supporting international philanthropic projects through her charitable trust (The Cher Charitable Foundation). She is one of the artists who won three of the four major American entertainment awards EGOT (an acronym stands for Emmy, Grammy, Oscar, and Tony). She was ranked at number 43 on the Billboard’s Hot Hundred Artists of All Time”.
Assassination of a dynamic Indian leader – Rajiv Gandhi
Rajiv Gandhi (Rajiv Ratna Gandhi), served as the 6th Prime Minister of India, was assassinated while attending a public meeting at Sriperumbudur in Tamil Nadu state on May 21, 1991.
He was the grandson of India’s first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru and son of Indira Gandhi, India’s first woman prime minister and daughter of Nehru. He belonged the historically familiar Nehru-Gandhi family and the Indian National Congress Party. His father Feroze Gandhi was an Indian freedom fighter, journalist, and politician.
He was chosen as prime minister after the assassination of his mother Indira Gandhi (in office at that time). He married Sonia Gandhi in 1968 and they had two children – Priyanka Gandhi and Rahul Gandhi.
He was awarded Bharat Ratna (the highest civilian award of India) posthumously in 1991.
In his rule, he supported liberal economic policies, increasing industrial production, science and technology, and associated sectors. He reduced taxes on technology-based products belonging to especially computers, airlines, defence and telecommunications. He tried to modernise and expand the higher education by announcing a National Policy on Education in 1986.
The Costliest Tornado in the U.S. History
The outbreak occurred on May 22, 2011 striking Joplin, Missouri. It was a devastating multiple-vortex type tornado rated EF-5.
EF stands for Enhanced Fujita Scale used to rate tornados based upon the severity of the incurred damage.
It lasted for 38 minutes with winds blown at around 320 km/h (200 mph) speed. It cost a damage of about $2.8 billion (the highest in U.S. history) and killed about 160 people. More than 1000 people got injured.
St. John’s Regional Medical Centre was severely affected by this tornado and its life flight helicopter was blown away got destroyed. Extreme damage occurred in southeast Joplin destroying many houses and structures. Heavy vehicles were also thrown up to hundreds of meters in this area.
Creator of Biological Nomenclature
Carolus Linnaeus (Carl Linnaeus), the “father of modern Taxonomy and the Prince of Botanists”, was born on May 23, 1707 in Rashult village, Smaland, Sweden.
He is also honoured as one of the founders of modern ecology (the study of the relationships between living organisms and environment).
Carl Linnaeus was a botanist, zoologist, physician and explorer. The abbreviation L stands for Linnaeus in botany and zoology.
An Engineering wonder on East River in 1883:
Covering the boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn in New York City, the Brooklyn Bridge (a toll free bridge on both ways) on East River opened on May 24, 1883.
John Augustus Roebling designed this cable-stayed suspension hybrid bridge with neo-Gothic architectural style to cover a total span of 1.1 miles (about 1,834 meters).
It was constructed by New York Bridge Company between 1869 and 1883. The construction began on January 2, 1870. It has become a major iconic tourist attraction for New York since its opening. It has been under the maintenance of New York City Department of Transportation.
The designer of the first mass produced helicopter:
Igor Ivanovich Sikorsky, a Russian-American aviation designer, was born on May 25, 1889 in Kiev (now kyiv), Russian Empire (today’s Ukraine).
He was a specialist designer in the fields of both aircraft and helicopter. He was the first to make a successful mass produced helicopter the Sikorsky R-4.
After many trials, the two-seat S-5 was his successfully flown aircraft designed of his own not based on other European models.
He received many awards such as Wright Brothers Memorial Trophy in 1966, Order of St. Vladimir, ASME Medal in 1963, National Medal of Science in 1967, and John Fritz Medal in 1968.
He was honoured with the induction of the ‘International Air & Space Hall of Fame’ in 1966. He died on October 26, 1972 at the age of 83 at his home in Easton, Connecticut, US.
The Formation of AEA:
A labour union titled the “Actors’ Equity Association (AEA)” for the live theatrical performers was formed on May 26, 1913.
It is simply called ‘Equity’ or ‘Actors’ Equity’. It is headquartered in New York City, New York, US.
It has more than 50,000 members. Its main purpose is to work for the welfare of the performers or stage managers.
Francis Wilson (American actor) was the first president of the association elected by 112 professional theatrical actors. It called a strike together with the American Federation of Labor in 1919 seeking recognition as a labour union. During the strike a new association named the Chorus Equity Association was founded and merged with it in 1955. Directors and choreographers separated and formed their own unions in 1959.
Fortitude in the Face of Adversity:
“Who’s Afraid of the Big Bad Wolf?” the popular song from the popular movie, ‘The Three Little Pigs’ of Walt Disney released on May 27, 1933.
It a fictional cartoon film of type B124 folktale in the ATU Index (‘Aarne-Thompson-Uther Index’ or simply ‘Thompson Motif Index’), an indexed catalogue for classifying folktales used in folklore studies.
Joseph Jacobs, Australian writer and folklorist, first published the story in its best known form in his English fairy tales collections titled ‘English Fairy Tales’ in 1890.
The basic theme of the story revolves round a single point that ‘Fortitude in the Face of Adversity’ that means strength or emotional power to withstand adversity. The main characters were three pigs and a big bad wolf.
The three title characters of the film made by Walt Disney in 1933 were Fifer Pig, Fiddler Pig, and Practical Pig. Upon the success of this first short film sequels were planned and released later years.
Beetle started its journey…
Volkswagen (VW), the German automobiles producer was founded on May 28, 1937 by German Labour Front (a Nazi organization) in Wolfsburg, Germany.
Its main aim was to produce economy cars. Beetle, popular as the People’s Car was its small rear-engine low-priced car.
Adolf Hitler wanted to make the People’s Car to be available to every German family through a savings plan at RM990 (US$396) in 1938.
Today Volkswagen has become one of the largest car manufacturers in the world and making popular brands of multiple cars and trucks such as Audi, SEAT, Porsche, Lamborghini, Scania, Bentley, Bugatti, Skoda, and MAN.
It has the biggest share of 40% market in China.
It inaugurated auto museum dedicated to the history of Volkswagen in Wolfsburg in 1985.
The First Climbers of Mount Everest:
The First Climbers of the Mount Everest:
Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay, the two mountaineers were the first to reach the earth’s highest mountain above sea level on May 29, 1953 (the birthday of Tenzing Norgay).
Sir Edmund Percival Hillary was born on July 20, 1919 in Auckland, New Zealand. He was a mountaineer, explorer, and philanthropist. He served Royal New Zealand Air Force from 1943 to 1945 as Sergeant during World War II.
Having devoted to helping Sherpa mountaineers of Nepal, he founded the ‘Himalayan Trust’. He received numerous prestigious awards from many countries (United Kingdom, New Zealand, France, Poland, India, Nepal, etc.
He died on January 11, 2008 at the age of 88 in Auckland, New Zealand.
Tenzing Norgay (Nepali-Indian) was a Sherpa mountaineer (Sherpas are the Tibetan ethnic people). He was born on May 29, 1914 in Khumbu, Nepal. He became the first director of the Himalayan Mountaineering Institute (founded in 1954), Darjeeling for field training.
The highest adventure sports award of India was renamed after him “the Tenzing Norgay National Adventure Award in 2003.
He died on May 9, 1986 at the age of 71 in Darjeeling, India.
Joan of Arc burned at the stake
She was born in peasant family in c. 1412 in Domremy, Kingdom of France. She became a great military heroine at a younger age of about 17.
Having received visions from Archangel Michael, Saint Margaret, and Saint Catherine, she supported the French king Charles VII and fought against the English.
She sieged the City of Orleans and entered the city on April 29, 1429. Later she launched the Loire Campaign (crucial part of Hundred Years’ War) to clear all English and Burgundian troops at the Battle of Patay. Consequently Charles became king of France in Reims Cathedral.
She was captured by Burgundian troops and was declared guilty (as heretic) and burned at the stake at about 19 years of age on May 30, 1431. Almost about five centuries after her death she was canonized in 1920 and declared as Saint in 1922.
The First Copyright Act in the US:
The first American President George Washington signed the first Copyright Bill into Law on May 31, 1790. This Law restricted books, maps, and charts for copyright protection.
Authors are initially granted copyright by this Act for 14 years of term. And this can be extended for another 14 years if the authors are survived.
This was the first federal copyright act instituted by the U.S. government. This 1790’s Act of Copyright applied only to the US citizens.
Protection to foreign copyright holders from select nations was provided by The International Copyright Act of 1891 (Chace Act) signed into Law by President Benjamin Harrison on March 3, 1891.
The major amendments to the 1790’s Act were:
- The Copyright Act of 1831:
14 years copyright period was extended to 28 years and thereof for another 14 years. Musical compositions were included.
2. The Copyright Act pf 1870:
Also known as Patent/Trade Mark Act of 1870 intended to introduce trademarks.
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