This Day-June-in History

First to Implement the Light Pollution Act:

‘The Protection of the Atmosphere Act’, the law aimed to eliminate ‘Light Pollution’, was implemented for the first time in the world by Czech Republic on June 01, 2002.

It addresses light and other kinds of air pollution.

In this law, light pollution directed above the level of horizon is clearly defined. The law obligates citizens and organizations to take measures using fully shielded light fixtures to prevent the occurrence of light pollution of the air.

A fine ranging from 500 to 150,000 Czech crowns is subject to be paid by the violators.

The Youngest First Lady at 21 in the White House:

Frances Folsom (born name) became the youngest first lady in the history of the White House as she was married to the U.S President Grover Cleveland on June 2, 1886.

President Cleveland proposed marriage to her in 1885 when she visited Washington DC with her mother. She agreed to it. Their marriage was held in the Blue Room, one of three state parlours on the first floor of the White House.

At the time of marriage Cleveland was at 49 and Frances, 21.

Stephen Grover Cleveland served as the 22nd and 24th president of the United States. His first term was from 1885 to 1889 and the second term from 1893 to 1897.

The Father of Blood Banks:

Charles Richard Drew, an expert physician in developing improved blood storage techniques, was born on June 03, 1904 in an African-American middle-class family in Washington DC.

He was the first African-American to earn Doctor of Science in Medicine degree from the District of Columbia chapter of the American Medical Association.

His research thesis on “Banked Blood; A Study on Blood Preservation” made him achieve this in 1940.

In 1941, he was appointed as director of the first American Red Cross Blood Bank.

There used to be racial segregation in donating blood by the American Red Cross those days and it continued till 1950.

Drew protested against this arguing of having no scientific proof in it and resigned in protest in 1942.

He met with a car accident while driving the car and died in Alamance General Hospital in Burlington, North Carolina, U.S. at the age of 45 on April 01, 1950.

Hollywood’s Mesmerizing Star and Great Humanitarian:

Either a bit late or early, “The Hollywood Goddess” was born in 1975:

Angelina Jolie, an epitome of eternal stardom and great humanitarian was born on June 4, 1975 in Los Angeles, California, U.S.

Her acting career started at the age of 16. After some initial hiccups, she began her professional career playing her first leading role in Cyborg 2 (a science fiction sequel) in 1993.

She has starred in many successful movies, such as ((few films are given below) :

  • Tomb Raider (2001),
  • Mr. & Mrs. Smith (2005),
  • Wanted (2008),
  • Salt (2010), and
  • The Tourist (2010).

She has won many accolades so far such as:

  • Golden Globe Awards – three times,
  • Screen Actors Guild Awards – two times She has got a hat-trick of Academy Awards for best supporting Actress in three films namely George Wallace (1997), Gia (1998), and Interrupted (1999).

An Economist, To Address The Prolonged Unemployment:

The ideas of a Baron (nobleman), who was born on June 5, 1883 in Cambridge, England, led to revolutionary change in macroeconomic (deals with the structure of an economy as a whole) policies.

John Maynard Keynes originated the thought of ‘Keynesian economics’. These are the theories of how demand influences economic output and inflation.

He was a journalist, and financier and also a civil servant, director of the Bank of England, and one among the Bloomsbury Group of intellectuals.  

His popular book “The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money” explains that inadequate aggregate demand can lead to prolonged periods of high unemployment and the economy will not automatically rebound to full employment.

The Economist, a British weekly, ranked him as “Britain’s most famous 20th-century economist”. He died of heart attack on 21 April 1946 at the age of 62 in Tilton, England.

American Pharoah, the First to win the Grand Slam of Thoroughbred Racing:

American Pharoah, a Thoroughbred racehorse became the 12th Triple Crown winner after winning the Belmont Stakes on June 6, 2015.

Thoroughbred racehorse is a purebred horse used for horse racing.

Triple Crown is a series of horse races consisting of Kentucky Derby, Preakness Stakes, and Belmont Stakes meant for three-year-old thoroughbreds.

American Pharoah was born on February 2, 2012 at Tom VanMeter’s Stockplace Farm in Lexington, Kentucky and bred by Ahmed Zayat, CEO of Zayat Stables, LLC.

After 2015 racing year, American Pharoah was retired stud as per the agreement.

His sire (father) was Pioneerof the Nile, and dam (mother), Littleprincessemma.

The Jockey Club has reserved both the spellings, Pharaoh (correct spelling), and Pharoah so that no horse in future can be similarly named in the honour of the winning record of American Pharoah.

American Pharoah became the first horse in history to complete the Grand Slam of Thoroughbred racing by winning the Breeder’s Cup Classic at Keenland on October 31, 2015.

The King of Rock n Roll’s Mansion – Listed as a Historic Place – for the First Time in the US:

A 14-acre mansion called Graceland once belonged to the King of Rock and Roll, Elvis Presley, was listed in the National Register of Historic Places and opened to the public as Museum on June 7, 1982.

The National Register of Historic Places is the U.S. government’s official list of structures, buildings, sites, objects, etc. to be preserved for their historical significance.

Upon the death of Elvis Presley on August 16, 1977 (aged 42), his daughter and only surviving beneficiary, Lisa Mary Presley inherited Graceland in 1993 at the age of 25.

Then onwards hundreds of thousands of people estimated about 650,000 visitors go to see Graceland every year. Now it one of the top tourist attractions in America.

Moreover, it is the most-visited privately-owned residence in the U.S. and the world.

The current owner of this mansion is Elvis Presley Enterprises, Inc.

Creator of W3 – “World Wide Web” (www):

Timothy Berners-Lee, a British scientist, and inventor of the World Wide Web, was born on June 8, 1955 in London, England.

He is a computer scientist and a professor at the MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His full name is Sir Timothy John Berners-Lee. He is familiar as TimBL and TBL. The first Web browser and Web server was devised and implemented by him.

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The Father of Railways:

George Stephenson, a civil and mechanical engineer, is considered as the Father of Railways.

George was born on June 9, 1781 in Wylam, Northumberland, England.

Rail transport system in the 19th century pioneered by his inventions helped a lot for the Industrial Revolution that made production processes shifted from hand to machine in Great Britain.

Standard Rail gauge i.e. 1.435 m (4 feet 8.5 inches) being used by most of the world’s railways was implemented by George Stephenson and hence called ‘Stephenson gauge’.

He and his son Robert Stephenson founded ‘Robert Stephenson & Company’, the first locomotive manufacturing company to build railway engines.

The Greatest German Opera:

The greatest German opera called ‘Tristan und Isolde’ was premiered for the first time at the National Theatre in Munich, Germany on June 10, 1865.

Opera is a theatrical form based on music and dramatic performances by singers.

It was composed by Richard Wagner in three acts, German composer and conductor of operas based on the ‘Tristan and Iseult’ authored by Gottfried von Strassburg.

Tristan and Iseult is a Celtic legend of the medieval heroic romance (chivalric romance) told since 12th century.

It was a tragedy love story between the Cornish knight Tristan and the Irish princess Iseult. The music score of this popular opera landmarked a new style in the development of western music.

The First Woman in the Federal Office of America:

Jeannette Rankin was born on June 11, 1880 in Missoula County, Montana, U.S.

She was elected two times as the member of the US Hose of Representatives from Montana, in 1916 for first time and again in 1940 for the second time.

The House of Representatives of the US is usually known as The House. It is the lower house of the US Congress. Senate is the Upper House.

She is still the only woman who represented to Congress from Montana.

She died on May 18, 1973 at the age of 92 in Carmel, California, US.

A statue of Rankin inscribed by Terry Mimnaugh was installed in the US Capitol’s Statuary Hall in 1985 depicting ‘I Cannot Vote For War’.

An Action-Adventurous FilmThe incredible Success:

Indiana Jones and the Raiders of the Lost Ark, one of the greatest action-adventurous movies directed by Steven Spielberg, released on June 12, 1981.

The leading roles were played by Harrison Ford (one of the highest grossing actor in the world), Karen Allen, Paul Freeman, Ronald Lacey, John Rhys-Davies, and Denholm Elliott.

It was a blockbuster film that earned approximately $390 worldwide (budget of the film=$20 million) and in some theatres played over a year.

It won Five Academy (Oscar) Awards, seven Saturn Awards (for best science fiction films), and BAFTA (British Academy of Film and Television Arts) Award. The US Library of Congress (known as LC, a research library) selected the movie for preservation in the National Film Registry (known as NFR of the US National Films Preservation Board which collects films) in 1999.

The Flying Finn – The Hero of Long-Distance Run:

Paavo Johannes Nurmi, an unbeatable 14-year career middle-distance and long-distance runner was born on June 13, 1897 in Turku, Grand Duchy of Finland, (in Russian Empire those days).

He was at his peak undefeated for 121 races starting from 800 m and above.

He was popular as the “Flying Finn” or the “Phantom Finn” in the early 20th century by setting 22 official world records at distances between 1500 m 20 km.

He attained great success in the summer Olympic Games with nine gold and three silver medals. He died on October 2, 1973 at the age of 76 in Helsinki, Finland.

The Stars and Stripes:

The Stars and Stripes, the First Official National flag of the United States, was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on June 14, 1777.

The Continental Congress was formed in 1770s to act on behalf of the North American colonies by a group of delegates.

It was for a time believed that Betsy Ross, flag maker, made the design of this first flag with 13 alternating red and white horizontal stripes and 13 white stars in a circular pattern in a blue canton.

The 50 stars of the present US flag represent 50 states and 13 stripes the original colonies. The bicameral legislature of the United States of America is represented by federal Congress, which consists the upper house (Senate) and the lower house (the House of Representatives/the House).

Magna Carta:

Magna Carta is a royal charter of rights agreed by King John of England on June 15, 1215 at Runnymede, near Windsor to make peace between the unpopular king and a group of rebel barons.

The four original 1215 charters were prepared by Archbishop of Canterbury, and Cardinal Stephen Langton.

It, known as the Great Charter, was written in Latin and is honoured as the most famous documents in the world.

There are three Clauses still remained on statute in England and Wales:

  1. The freedom of the English Church,
  2. The ancient liberties of the City of London,
  3. A right to due legal process.

Politicians and lawyers even today cite Magna Carta in support of constitutional positions that indicates how powerful iconic status it’s got British society.

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