Part – 04
01. What name is given to goods thrown overboard to lighten a ship in distress?
To lighten a ship in distress the items (cargo/ship parts/equipment) that were thrown overboard is called Jetsam.
These things thrown as Jetsam sink and remain under the water.
Generally the shipwreck is classified as four types in the sea.
1. Flotsam: These are the goods float on the water come from a wrecked ship.
2. Lagan: it is the sunk cargo thrown intentionally overboard with a marked buoy for the purpose of retrieving it later.
3. Derelict: A ship abandoned on the high seas.
4. Jetsam: As explained above.
02. What name is given to tissue damage caused by exposure to extreme cold?
It is the injury caused by freezing of the skin and underlying tissues when the skin is exposed to cold temperatures or cold water (for a longer period of time). It sometimes happens if ice packs or suchlike (metal or non-meta) things pressed directly against skin.
Generally it is of three types.
- Frostnip: It is first stage of mild Frostbite.
- Superficial Frostbite: The second stage where the skin decolours slightly.
- Severe (Deep) Frostbite: All layers of skin/tissues are affected in this condition.
03. Which country always leads the Olympic procession at the opening ceremony?
As an honour given as the creators of Olympic Games, Greece team always lead the procession in the opening ceremony of every Olympic Games.
It is said that the Olympic Games had a history of almost 3000 years. Because these games were used to take place in the city of Olympia, the name Olympic Games was originated.
These games were held every four years during August and September beginning in 776 BCE. That is the reason the modern revival of Olympic Games are called Olympiad meaning a term of four years.
04. Which creature is known as orange man, or wise man of the forest?
The meaning of the word Orangutan in Malay language is “(wise) man of the forest”. They are also called orange man because most of their body is covered with red fur.
They are highly intelligent and 96% of their genes are similar to us. They are the largest arboreal mammals (They live in trees).
These great apes exist in Indonesian and Malaysian rain forests. They are not knuckle-walkers like gorillas and chimpanzees. They are mainly fruit-eaters. They also consume leaves, bark, insects, honey, and bird eggs.
05. Which Scottish mathematician invented logarithms?
- John Napier
John Napier (1550-1617) was a Scottish mathematician, astronomer, and physicist. He discovered logarithms containing 90 pages of tables (natural logarithms of trigonometric functions) in 1614.
He is famous for his works such as:
- Napier’s bones (manually operated calculator),
- Decimal notation (a symbol that separates the integer part from the fractional part of a number), and
- Spherical trigonometry (trigonometry that deals with the sides and angles of spherical polygons).
06. Which is the only chess piece that cannot be taken?
- The king
The king is the most important piece in chess because losing king means losing the game. The ultimate aim of chess game is to capture the opponent king and keeping one’s king in safe position.
The game ‘Chess’ was initially invented in India called ‘Chatrang’ or ‘Chaturanga’ (a popular four-player war game) around the 6th century AD. As it spread to other countries so the names of the pieces changed and their appearances.
07. What name is given to a visible cloud of dust and gas in space?
It occupies the space between stars and acts as nursery for new stars. It basically contains hydrogen and other iodized gases.
It is said that Abd al-Rahman al-Sufi, the Persian astronomer wrote about the first true nebula (called a star cluster) in his book of Fixed Stars in 964 CE. He said about a little cloud near the Andromeda Galaxy, the nearest large spiral galaxy to the Milky Way.
08. Which is the only seal that feeds on penguins?
- Leopard seal
These are the second largest species of seal in the Antarctic.
To hunt penguins it hides behind the edges of the ice and grabs the feet of the swimming penguin. It then kills the penguin by beating it vigorously against the water surface repeatedly and eats it.
Killer whales are the only natural predators of leopard seals. Leopard seals spend long periods of time underwater generating great vocal sounds during the austral spring and summer.
09. What name is given to a dilute solution of acetic acid used to flavour food and as a preservative?
It is a sour-tasting diluted acetic acid used as a condiment or preservative for increasing shelf life.
It is generally made from fermentation of sugar and water solutions. It is used as preservative at homes and in industries.
It enhances the taste of the food. It prevents spoilage of vegetables and pickles by killing residual microorganisms. The acetic acid in it increases the acidity of the food items thus they are well preserved. Vinegar keeps the shelf life of pickled vegetables for about 5 to 6 months.
10. Who was the last king of Rome?
- Tarquin the Proud
His full name was Lucius Tarquinius Superbus reigned Rome for 25 years from 534 BCE to 509 BCE. He was the seventh and the last king.
His tyrannical rule led to the establishment of the Roman Republic, a state run through the public representation. He died in 495 BCE in Cumae, the first ancient Greek colony in Italy.
Romulus was the first king of Rome founded it in 753 BCE. The king of Rome was the chief magistrate of the kingdom.